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Quail Facts

  • There are 6 different species of quail:  Bobwhite Quail, California Quail, Mountain Quail, Gambel's Quail, Scaled Quail, and Mearn's Quail.
  • The Northern Bobwhite, or Bobwhite Quail, is the most widespread of the 6 species in the United Stated.
  • Bobwhite quail range in weight from 6-8 ounces and in height from 6-8 inches.
  • Bobwhite quail are ground dwelling birds.
  • Bobwhite quail feed mainly on insects.
  • The male quail's upper body is reddish-brown while the belly is pale and streaked.  There is a white stripe above the eye with a white patch inside the black area around the throat.  In females, this region is caramel-colored.
  • During early fall, bobwhite quails form into social groups called coveys.  Coveys spend the night on the ground in a circle with their heads pointed outward to conserve heat and to avoid nocturnal predators.
  • Males begin their familiar "Bob-Bob-White" call to attract hens for mating in the spring.
  • Nesting occurs from May through September.
  • Clutch sizes vary from 10-20 eggs.  The average amount is 12 eggs laid one a day.
  • Incubation lasts 23-24 days.
  • The chicks follow their parents upon hatching and fledge in 6-7 days.
  • Chicks have a 30% mortality rate.
  • Life expectancy of a bobwhite quail is less than one year.
  • The bobwhite quail feeds mainly on insects.
  • Due to the small heart of the quail, the average annual home range size is 40 acres.  Some quail's home range is up to 200 acres depending on conditions.
  • The flight speed of a bobwhite quail is 20-40mph.  They can only fly short distances because flying raises their body temperature.  If this temperature gets too high the bird will perish.
  • Domestic cats, skunks, foxes, raccoons, owls, snakes, dogs, and hunters are predators of quail.
  • The major factors leading to the decreasing numbers of bobwhite quail are habitat loss, intensive agricultural practices, and harsh winters.